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首页 > 高中辅导 > 高考 > 学科备考 > 英语 >

2020届高三一轮复习英语——名词性从句

2019-08-22 14:37:43 来源:高中化学辅导网网

在高考英语复习中,什么是名词性从句?名词性从句是在句子中起名词作用的句子。名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词性从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。高中化学辅导网老师为你整理了2020届高三一轮复习英语——名词性从句,希望能够对你有所帮助!

引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:

连接词:that, whether, if (不充当从句的任何成分)

连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which

连接副词:when, where, how, why

不可省略的连词:

1. 介词后的连词

2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略

That she was chosen made us very happy.

We heard the news that our team had won.

【比较】whether与if均为“是否”的意思。但在下列情况下,whether不能被if取代:

1. whether引导主语从句并在句首

2. 引导表语从句

3. whether从句作介词宾语

4. 从句后有"or not",例:Whether he will come or not is not clear.

大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用it充当形式主语:

It is not important who will go.

It is still unknown which team will win the match.

01 主语从句

用来作主语的句子叫做主语从句。如:

(1)When he was born is unknown. 他生于何时还不知道。

(2)What he did last night is being investigated. 他昨天晚上干了些什么正在调查之中。

主语从句通常由连词thatwhether、连接代词或连接副词以及关系代词型what引导。

1. that引导

That we shall be late is certain.

我们要晚了,这是确定无疑的。

That he should have ignored the working class was natural.

他忽视工人阶级是很自然的。

That you are coming to London is the best news I have heard this long time.

你将来伦敦是好久以来我听到的最好消息。

That she was chosen made a tremendous stir in her village.

她被挑选上,在她村 子里引起很大轰动。

2. whether引导

Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen.

是否对我们有害还要看一看。

Whether they would support us was a problem.

他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。

3. 连接代词引导

Whoever is top from wins the game when two matched players meet.

两强相争勇者胜。

Whichever (of you) comes in first will receive a prize.

无论(你们)谁先到都可以得奖。

Whichever you want is yours.

你要哪个哪个就是你的。

4. 连接副词引导

When we arrive doesn’t matter.

什么时候到没有关系。

How it was done was a mystery.

这是怎样做的是一个谜。

How this happended is not clear to anyone.

这件事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。

Where I spend my summer is no business of yours.

我在哪里过暑假不关你的事。

5. 关系代词what引导

What we need is money. 我们需要的是钱。

What’s done is done. 事已成定局。

What make the river more beautiful are the lotus plants growing in the water. 为河水增色的是水里的荷花。

What struck me was that they have all suffered a lot. 给我很深印象的是他们都受过很多苦。

注意:

1. 主语从句一般用it作形式主语,放在句首,而将主语从句放到句末。如:

(1)It is possible that he has stolen the car.

很可能他偷了小车。

(2)Isn’t it strange that he should not have passed the test?

他测试没有通过,难道不奇怪吗?

2. that引导主语从句放在句首时,that不可省,但在句末口语中可省。如:

That he was ill yesterday is known now.

大家都已知道他昨天生了病。

3. 连接代词引导主语从句只能放在句首。如;

(1)Who has broken the glass is unknown. 谁打破了玻璃现在还不知道。

(2)What he wants is all here. 他所要的东西都在这里。

4. 主语从句中主句的谓语动词一般用第三人称单数形式,但what引导主语从句的主句谓语动词的形式须根据句子的意思来判断。如

(1)How he worked it out is still a secret. 他是如何把它做出来的还是一个秘密

(2)What they makes in this factory are TV sets. 他们在工厂里所做的东西就是电视机。

02 宾语从句

用来充作宾语的句子叫做宾语从句。如:

He asked what you were doing last night. 他问你昨天夜晚在干什么。

I didn’t know that he was wounded in the accident. 我原来不知道他在那事故中受了伤。

Can you explain why he didn’t come to the party last Sunday? 你能解释上周星期日他为什么没有来参加聚会吗?

宾语从句通常由连词thatwhether (if)、连接代词或连接副词以及关系代词型what引导:

1. that引导

We believe that he is honest. 我们相信他是诚实的。

The doctor insists that I give up smoking医生坚持要我戒烟。

I suggest that we should go tomorrow. 我建议我们明天走。

2. whether / if引导

I don’t know whether he’ll arrive in time. 我不知道他是否能及时到。

I didn’t know whether they liked the place. 我不知道他们是否喜欢这个地方。

I’ll see whether I can induce him to accept it. 我要看看我是否能劝他接受。

3. 连接代词引导

I don’t know who [whom] you mean. 我不知道你指谁。

Please tell me which you like. 告诉我你喜欢哪一个。

I’ll do whatever I can do. 我将做我所能做的事。

4. 连接副词引导

He asked why he had to go alone. 他问他为什么必须一个人去。

You don’t know when you are lucky. 你身在福中不知福。

I asked how he was getting on. 我问他情况怎样。

He knows where they live. 他知道他们住哪里。

注意:

1. that 在口语中常被省略,但在正式的文体中,不能省;并且它一般不能引导介词的宾语从句,但可引导except, but, in 等少数介词的宾语从句。如:

I didn’t know (that) he was Li Lei. 我不知道他就是李蕾。

I will do anything I can to help you except that I’m ill.

只要我身体舒服,我愿做任何事情来帮助你。

2. 宾语从句之后带有补足语成分时,一般须用it作形式宾语,把宾语从句放到句末,此时的that不能省。如:

The boy has made it clear that they can’t play with his toys.

那个男孩已清楚的表明他们不能玩弄他的玩具。

3. 动词advise, ask, demand, desire, insist(坚决主张), order, propose, request, suggest(建议)等代的宾语从句须用虚拟语气,即:(should) do的形式。

He asked that we (should) get there before nine o’clock. 他要求我们在九点钟之前赶到那儿。

The teacher advised us that we (should) not waste our time. 老师劝告我们不要浪费时间了。

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